Ingredient List

A thru L
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Acetic Acid
See Vinegar

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AHA
See Alpha-hydroxy acids

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Alcohol
CAUTION! DO NOT USE DENATURED OR RUBBING ALCOHOL IN YOUR MOUTH!!! IT IS POISON!!!

In case some of you aren't aware of the specifics of alcohol proofing.
Alcohol strength in a particular type of liquor is measured as proof. Essentially, the percent alcohol in the liquor is 1/2 the proof. Therefore, if you are using 105 proof to make an extraction, you are using 1/2 alcohol and 1/2 water, coloring or flavoring. Everclear is 195 proof, which makes it almost pure alcohol, and definitely superior for any type of toiletry making.
Bea Hall

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Almond Oil
A pale yellow oil expelled or pressed from the seed of the sweet almond tree, it is rich in natural emollients that have skin-softening qualities.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Aloe Vera
The leaves from the aloe vera plant contain a sap that is believed to promote healing and soothe the skin. This sap is 99.5% water. Also see Safety
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Alpha-hydroxy acid and Beta-hydroxy acid

Alpha-hydroxy acidSource
Lactic AcidMilk
Buttermilk
Yogurt
Malic AcidApples
Citric and/or Ascorbic acidMost tropical fruits
Citrus fruits (limes, lemons, oranges, etc)
Strawberries
BromelainPineapple
PapainPapaya
Beta-Hydroxy acidSource
Glycolic acidSugar cane
Salicylic acidWhite Willow Bark

Other acidic fruits and herb concoctions, etc: (I don't know the specifc * acids in these)
Meadowsweet
Tomatoes
Green Tea

These are just some. I'm positive there's *tons* more that can be added. But many of the AHA fruit acids come from the substances above. They're concentrated and added to some of our favorite and not so favorite commercial creams, lotions, shampoo's, and scrubs in strengths from 1% to 14%. There's an 80% syrum out there somewhere I've heard that is sold to be *added* to creams and under no circumstances to be used neat. The key thing to remember about all of these is that they are *Acids*. Acid eats at organic substances. Like dead skin and live skin in specifics of what we use the lotions for. Many of these substances have been being used in their natural state for a few hundred years or more for their skin smoothing, lightning, and moisturizing qualities. An example.. watch Gone with the Wind again. And you'll hear mammy refer to using buttermilk on Scarlett's shoulders and bosom all winter long to give her that peaches and cream paleness. The acid in it, like that in lemon jiuce, dissolves? eats away at? dead/dying skin cells that don't get scrubbed away without regular exfoliation or simply with time. That's the premise behind using buttermilk, lemon juice, or any of these other substances to get rid of freckles.

What am I getting at with all this? I think(From one of the numerous FDA warning reports I've read) we only have something to fear in using AHA's and BHA's in concetration of 8% or higher. Most creams contain them in 2% to 5%. You want gentler and more natural, try yogurt, buttermilk, and mushed up/pureed fruits. They do wonders. They're the same acids.
Sunny McCarty 5/5/98

I don't think that the use of AHAs, or exfoliating predisposes one to skin cancer.....I think that with newly rejuvenating skin you could predispose yourself to more harm from UVBs, and UVAs without using sunscreen. Same as when a scar is healing...........On the other hand, studies I've read, as well as speaking with dermatologists, state that the use of some AHAs, as in the fruit derived kind (citric acid) complements sunscreen by inhibiting UVA and UVB radiation...Vitamin C also increases collagen production.

We're playing with fire by going outside, not only while working in the garden, or while sunbathing, without the use of sunscreen.....Also some of the herbs we are using, along with the many synthetic medications out there, predispose to phototoxicity.....It's in the best interest of all to use a sunscreen.

Yes, it is true that our bodies slough off dead skin cells.....Skin cells grow from the bottom to the top......It's important to exfoliate dead cells to make way for the fresh skin.....Must remember that the top dead skin cells have a sticky substance that I compare to cement! This substance cannot be removed by soap and water, and as the skin ages nature's ability to slough off these cells on it's own diminishes considerably.....Intrinsic, and extrinsic aging of the skin leads to wrinkling, irregular pigmentation, dryness, loss of elasticity and hyperkeratinization, creates a thickened stratum corneum (the layer of dead and dying cells).....Your stratum corneum is a good thing.....It provides the best defense against pollutants, pathogens, UVA and UVB radiation, and water loss through it's richness in keratin......A thinkened SC however is slowed in turnover in newly revived skin cells, as well as makes it harder for the skin to be permeable to the good things you are putting on your skin for skin care.

AHAs, and their synthetic derivatives help in this rejuvenation of cells, and are thought, through research, to actually improve the beneficial barrier that the stratum corneum provides against environmental, and caustic chemicals our skin is exposed to.

AHAs act by increasing collagen substance and stimulating production of other substances, which I wont go into, that promote lubrication, hydration, and give support to the dermis.

The decreasing thickness of the stratum corneum leads to epirdermolysis of the damaged epidermis.....This along with the other beneficial things AHAs do, reduces dry skin, evens texture, reduces the appearance of fine lines, and lightens irregular pigmentation (something that dark skin has a great deal of problems with as well.....perhaps this is one of the reason Cleo herself used this?).

AHAs are also very beneficial for acne proned skin.....Sort of like anticoagulants working to ward off strokes.....Keeps the plumbing moving so to speak.....Acne is not the result of dirt, or a bad diet (although this can aggravate an already condition).....Notice that acne usually doesn't appear until puberty, or in some other period of hormonal imbalance (BCP use, pregnancy, stress, menopause, etc).....The follicles, and sebaceous glands become clogged, not allowing sebum to flow freely, the bacteria P. acne lurks, and thrives in this environment....White blood cells attack, producing pus, and inflammation resulting in pustules.....AHAs reduce this cohesion, allows the sebum to move freely, reducing the formation of new acne.

Can traditional facial scrubs help in this??? Well yes, and no....Depends on your skin type.....People with sensitive, mature, excessively oily, and acne proned skin should not use scrubs on their skin, nor should they use loofahs, and other scrubbing devices....Spreads acne, overdries oily skin, drastically cuts/tears mature skin (as well as dries already dry skin), and hugely irritates already sensitive skin.....

This is why AHAs are a better alternative for these types of skin. Overall people with thin, non-oily skin who are young and have minimal photodamage will be more sensitive to AHAs.....Oily skin, or photoexposed skin should have no problem with these natural products.....Best defense is to obtain a recommendation from your nearest skin care specialist, or health care professional (not the lady in the drug store).....There are many different types of products, with different concentration, as well as different pH levels.....Depends on your skin type, and any damage.

Incidentally enzymes are on the rise, and will most likely be the next AHA....We are loaded with natural occurring enzymes in our body, through are normal metabolic processes, such as digesting food.....As we age metabolism is slowed due to the decreased production of enzymes....This deficit in enzymes leads to poor digestion, decreased vitamin, mineral, and antioxidant absorption (such as turning betacarotene into the useful vitamin A we so need for bodily functions, as well as healthy skin).....

This build up is not only bad for our bodies, but also of our skin.....Our skin is a clear reflection of our internal health....Remember the saying beauty is only skin deep.....Not so! Internally an enzyme rich diet does wonders.....Good for the immune system, decreases cancer risk, improves cardio-vascular system, etc.....Externally, through the use of enzyme rich creams and gels on our skin, these work just the same as AHAs----exfoliate, dissolve dead cells, refine lines, even up uneven pigmentation, control acne considerably, and protects from skin damage.....A lot of people who have said that they cannot use other AHAs, are using enzymes without problems.

Some of the foods rich in these enzymes are papaya (papain), pineapple (Bromelain), avocados, bananas, aloe, mangos, and of course all sprouts.....I seem to recall reading something on cucumbers as well....

AHA breakdown: sour milk (lactic acid), spoiled wine (tartaric acid), sugar cane (glycolic acid), fruits (citric acid), and apples (malic acid)

BHAs are substances such as salicylic acid, and are supposed to by milder for those who are unable to use AHAs (larger molecular structure I believe).....BHAs are already present in natural substances such as wintergreen oil, sweet birch, and willow.
Kelly 1/2/98

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Aluminum sulfate (Alum)
In cosmetics, alum can be found in many astringents and aftershaves. It acts as an antiseptic and helps stop bleeding. Add a pinch to your favorite astringent or toner recipe to give it extra tightening power.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Alum Root
Alum Root (Heuchera americana/glabra) is also called American Sanicle, Mountain Saxifrage, Burnt Alum (which is heated, dried and pulverized). It contains 9-20% tannins, phlebotannins, other polyhydric phenols with galloyl glucosides and various unidentified substances. To confuse you, there is also another plant referred to as Alum Root - Geranium maculatum - AKA Cranesbill.

Alum is used on wounds, ulcers, cancers - astringent - taken internally to stop diarrhea. It's used for many many things, but as some of you alluded to - primarily as a styptic (to stop bleeding). It can be made into a tincture for a wonderful first aid remedy.

So bottom line it is a wonderful root to use for bleeding and as an astringent.
Kathy Sedler

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Apricot Kernel Oil (Persic Oil)
A light oil obtained from the kernels or pits of apricots, it is a popular body oil as it does not leave n oily film on the skin.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Ascorbic Acid
See Vitamin C

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Aspirin (Salicylic Acid)
Salicylic acid occurs naturally in many plant leaves. People used to cure their headaches by chewing wintergreen or sweet birch leaves. Aspirin can be used as a preservative, antiseptic, and anti-itch treatment. Care should be used, however, as aspirin can be absorbed through the skin.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Avocados
Avocados are rich in natural oil, protein, and vitamins A and B. They contain more protein than any other fruit. In Mexico, women use it as a moisturizer to protect their skin and hair from the hot and dry climate. A simple and nourishing facial mask is made by mashing an avocado and spreading it on your face for fifteen minutes, then rinsing with tepid water and patting dry.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Avocado Oil
A pale green oil made from the dehydrated flesh of the avocado, avocado oil is popular in cooking because it contains no cholesterol and has a very high smoking point. It is excellent for moisturizing the skin and hair because it has very high vitamin A and E contents and absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)
Baking Soda is a gentle, alkaline, white powder that neutralizes acids. When mixed with acids such as vinegar, carbon dioxide is produced. This common household product is used as a skin soother, tooth powder, and deodorizer.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Beer
Beer makes an excellent hair rinse and setting lotion. The flatter the beer, the better. The sugar and protein in beer work to thicken the hair. Don't worry about smelling like a brewery--the odor leaves as soon as your hair dries.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Beeswax
Beeswax is the wax secreted from the underside of bees, which they use to make the walls of the honeycomb. No synthetic product having all its properties has been developed. It is a valued ingredient in the cosmetics industry, as it will not become rancid and has germ-killing properties. In beauty products it forms a protective barrier on the skin to guard against environmental irritants and lock in moisture.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox
Yellow beeswax.
Also see Waxes

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Benzoin
A mild antiseptic so would be good for minor nicks when shaving. It also helps to slow oxidation of oils, and also 'fixes' many fragrances so they don't evaporate off too quickly.
Pat Silver

Benzoin, whether the EO or the Tincture, is one of the worst sensitizers/cross sensitizers.
Marge Clark

Tincture of Benzoin: A tincture is a solution that is about 50% alcohol. Benzoin is a gum resin secreted from the bark of the styrax benzoin tree, which grows in Thailand, Cambodia, and Sumatra. It is used as a preservative and antiseptic in cosmetics.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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BHA
See Alpha-hydroxy acids

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Borax (Sodium Tetraborate)
Borax is a natural chemical substance found on alkline lakeshores such as in California's Death Valley. It is used as a water softener, preservative, and texturizer. Because it is a mild alkali it gently cleanses without drying the skin.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Carbon Dioxide Extracts
Hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a relatively new process used to extract the essence of the plant. When a certain amount of pressure is applied to CO2 (carbon dioxide) this gas turns into liquid. This liquid CO2 can be used as a very inert, safe, "liquid solvent." CO2 is the gas we all breathe out of our lungs. It is also the gas that plants themselves thrive on. Essential oils extracted in this way have the added benefit of avoiding the thermal degradation associated with distillation at atmospheric pressure.

Two types of materials are obtained by this CO2 method:

Essential oils or SO2 Selects: are obtained at relatively low CO2 pressure and contain only volatile, CO2 soluble components. These tend to resemble the classic steam distillate but with the advantage of no temperature degradation and the potential for additional volatile substances that may not be distilled out of the plant under normal steam distillation.

Extracts called "totals" are obtained at higher CO2 pressures and contain all CO2 soluble components, including waxes, resins, colorants, resembling a classical hexane extract, with the advantage of no solvent residue. These totals are very very much like the herb itself.

The consistency of the essential oils extracted with the CO2 method will vary from batch to batch just as the plants themselves vary and just as steam distilled oils vary. Naturally, there is also the extraction process itself and the actual processor to consider.

CO2 totals are usually thick and pasty due to the beneficial fats, resins and waxes they contain that come from the plant material itself. These totals are soluble in essential oils and vegetal oils. Some, such as rosemary verbenone must be warmed with the vegetal oil or by itself and then quickly added to WARM oil in order to be soluble. It is the same thing for some of the others like sea buckthorn berry or vanilla CO2. Even small percentages of (.05% to 1 % ) of these CO2 extracts can be excellent additions to body oils, creams, ointments, lotions, balms, soaps or essential oil blends. Because of the sometimes thick, pasty nature of these CO2 oils, they should not be used in a nebulizer type diffuser. They could clog your diffuser.

These potent extracts are wonderful for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The Calendulas extract, for example, in a dosage of 2 grams extract to 1000 grams ointment is effective for it's anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. The chamomile CO2 essential oil or "select" contains 6% bisabolol and 2.8% matricin. The matricin is not degraded to chamazulene, Chamazulene has only one tenth of the anti-inflammatory activity as matricin.

CO2 extracts have a minimum shelf life of one year. They should be kept under the same conditions as steam distilled essential oils ... that is in a cool, dark place, in full glass containers.

Hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction appears to be an aromatherapist's (and herbalist's) dream come true (in some respects). Unlike the products produced by regular solvents (absolutes and concretes) the solvent (CO2) can be easily and totally removed, just by releasing the pressure in the extraction chamber. This process, because it happens in a closed chamber, can then collect the most volatile and most fragile fractions of the fragrance and plant. The end result; an extract as close to the natural essence of the plant that anyone has achieved, except perhaps, the new phytols, still being experimented with.
Susan

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Carmine
A natural dye made from carminic acid (C22H20O13) extracted from the dried bodies of the female cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus). The dye is used for biological stains, chemical indicators, an oil-color pigment, and in dyeing. It produces scarlet, crimson, purple, or claret when various metals are added.
Encyclopedia Americana

Because cochineal is a natural colorant it doesn't have to be listed in ingredients for food, however a doctor found out that cochineal can produce anaphilactic reactions in some people.
Lynx 9/9/98

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Caster Sugar
Superfine sugar, known in Britain as castor (or caster ) sugar, is more finely granulated. Because it dissolves almost instantly, superfine sugar is perfect for making meringues and sweetening cold liquids. It can be substituted for regular granulated sugar cup for cup.

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Castile Soap
Castile soap is a mild white soap made with olive oil. It is named after the Castile region in Spain where it was developed. Real castile soap must be at least 40% olive oil.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Castor Oil
Castor oil is made from the seed of the castor oil plant. This pale, unscented oil is an excellent oil for the hair, nails, and lips. As one of the few oils soluble in alcohol it is a good fixative for perfumes and colognes.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is to plants what hemoglobin is to blood: it is a vital part of healthy plant life. It is well known for its deodorant properties and helps promote healing.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Cochineal
A red dyestuff consisting of the dried bodies of the females of a scale-insect (Cochineal insect), Coccus Cacti, which lives on various cactuses.
Also see
Carmine
New Websters Dictionary 9/9/98

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Cocoa Butter
Cocoa butter is a creamy, fatty wax that is solid at room temperature. It is obtained from the seeds of the cocoa plant. Chocolate lovers will emhoy cocoa butter's mild chocolate scent. It is an excellent skin softener and can be used alone or mixed with other ingredients. Many pregnant women use it on their stomachs to avoid stretch marks.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Coconut Oil
Coconut oil is a solid white oil at room temperature. Today it is bought mainly for cosmetic use rather than cooking because it is 92% saturated fat. It preserves the skin and hair by providing a protective layer that locks in natural moisture. You can use it as a conditioner for your hair, skin, and lips.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Coconut Oil, Fractionated
Fractionated Coconut Oil is oil that has gone through steam distillation and has been refined. The solids are removed so it remains a liquid and doesn't go to a solid state like regular coconut oil. It looks like water in the bottle actually. I soaks into the skin very nicely, is not greasy and does not clog pores. It has an indefinite shelf life. No odor to it. It is great alone straight out of the bottle....scent it with your choice of scents and you have a "natural" perfume oil, massage oil or bath/body oil. It works well in blends with other oils. My older sister has begun taking massage therapy courses and mixed her up a blend of fractionated coconut oil, avacado oil, grapeseed oil and jojoba...works great!! I like to put it on my skin even without the massage!! Therese Lott who is on this list has also successfully used it in some lotions she has made. I have also added it to a few batches of soap at trace as a superfatting oil.
Jan Barnett

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Cornstarch (Corn Flour)
Cornstarch is a fine, white, starchy powder made from corn. It soothes the skin and is believed to possess healing properties. Many people use cornstarch in place of talcum powder. I also makes a good thickening agent for creams and lotions.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Diatomaceous earth
Diatoms are minuscule one-celled sea plants. Each living diatom secretes a protective cover formed from water-extracted silicates. When these algae die, they drop to the bottom of oceans and fresh waters where all but the shells decay. As oceans and fresh water lakes recede, they expose the shells to fossilization. The resulting dried mineral layers are called diatomites limestone being the most common form of such chalky light-weight rock. When present in a more advanced powderous condition, often in "snowbanks" several hundreds of fee thick, it is called Diatomaceous Earth.

The grade used in swimming pool and aquarium filtering systems is from the same Supplies but is chemically treated and partially dehydrated. This produces such a high crystalline silica content that mammals cannot easily dissolve it. The dust is also highly irritating to the lungs and can produce silicosis through continual over-exposure. This variety of D.E. should therefore not be used except in such filtering systems for which its highly abrasive quality acts as a cleaner and deodorizer.

Natural D.E. contains small amounts (usually 3% or less) of crystalline silicas, the remainder being pure non-crystalline silicas. In such quantities it is easily dissolved by the body and, in fact, is classified as Food Grade quality by the FDA. Because of its high mineral content, it is often fed to livestock as a food supplement (about 5% in volume, mixed into foods) and de-wormer, as well as used externally in stables and barns as an insecticide, fly deterrent and deodorizer.

Though far less irritating to the throat and lungs than chemically treated silicas, D.E., like any dust, should not be used in large amounts, such as when sprinkling rooms or yards, without wearing an effective mouth-to-nose mask.

While non-toxic to mammals and birds, D.E. is lethal in two basic ways to almost every insect species it contacts, including, of course, beneficial garden ones.

The first hazard is that it is a dust, which in itself poses a serious threat to insects in that they must already spend much of their existence grooming off everyday air-borne dust particles in order not to suffocate. Any concentrated powder, such as talc, for instance, will produce some degree of dehydration in insects. The second peril, is that the microscopic razors in D.E. also puncture their outer waxy coats causing even more moisture loss, and if ingested in an attempt to remove them, puncture vital internal organs as well.

If only a very light coating of D.E. touches insects, and they can then immediately find a small amount of standing water to remove the dust and replenish lost moisture, they may survive, but will avoid returning to the dusted sites. Being a repellent, D.E. can therefore also be used to deter their entry or re-entry into specific areas by dusting a barrier across porches and doorway openings, etc.

If a slightly thicker layer of D.E. is dusted directly on them or set evenly and unavoidably in their path, they will die of dehydration within 12-72 hours - many sooner if the dust is mixed with Pyrethrums.

D.E. IN YOUR HOME

Because D.E. is a very fine chalky material, applying it in your home can be a very dusty affair. The best method I've come up with is the fill a spice jar with the D.E. put on the plastic top that allows you to sprinkle the stuff . Cover all appliances, computers, food surfaces, etc. with sheets. You don't want to cover everything because you want to get the D.E. everywhere possible but you also don't want the dust to get into places it could do harm like computers or appliances. Then, sprinkle the powder evenly & lightly over the floor (this method works best on carpeting). Using a broom, brush the powder around and into the carpet. The room will fill with a cloud of the dust this is good! (Remember the warning about wearing a face mask, etc.) Sweep until the D.E. pretty much disappears from the carpet. Now - leave the room & close the door. Allow the dust in that room to settle for a good 45 min to an hour. If you haven't used too much powder, the room is now ready for occupancy and DUSTING! Dust up only the powder that offends you you'll probably want to dust shelves, but don't dust behind couches, etc. This dusting part is a bit of a pain, but you only have to do it a couple times a year and it works great! One normal sized spice jar should hold enough D.E. to dust a couple of nice sized bedrooms. Don't use too much! You're just wasting your money and making a bigger mess. Remember to change your air conditioning filter in a few days.

D.E. ON YOUR PET

You can also rub D.E. into your pet's coat to begin immediately solving your problem. You'll need to be sure that every inch of your pet (not including eyes) is dusted lightly & evenly and as close to the skin as possible. Remember, D.E. is a repellent as well as a killer, so bugs will rush to any spot they can find that isn't covered by the dust usually they'll try the tail, between the toes, the genitals first treat these areas first so that the bugs are forced to the middle where you can easily see them. It might be smart to dust your pet over the area where he sleeps to most so that the dust falls in these areas too. Your pet will probably start trying to shake the dust of immediately but if you've dusted close enough to the skin enough will remain to be efffective. Your pet will also try to lick off the dust, thereby ingesting it. If, as discussed earlier, you made sure to get the food grade D.E. this will not harm your pet in fact it is a source of minerals and may deworm him at the same time!

D.E. IN YOUR YARD

You've treated your home & pet but the bugs are still outside waiting to jump on both of you! So - sprinkle around the yard concentrating on the spots your pet spends the most time in. There are some scientists who believe D.E. also makes a great lawn fertilizer because it is high in mineral content. However, use D.E. carefully and sparingly. It will also kill of many beneficial insects (not those with hard body shells - like ladybugs). When using D.E. outside, try to apply it when rain is not likely for a day or two and don't get it wet with the hose. Although the D.E. doesn't "go bad" when it is wet, the dehydration factor won't work until it dries out again.

Remember both Boric Acid and Borax ARE toxic to humans. I find DE to be a wonderful, natural environmentally safe alternative.
Marta Anderson

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Emulsifying Wax
See Wax

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Epsom Salts (Magnesium Sulfate)
Epsom salts is a fine white crystal powder that can be purchased in any drugstore. Soaking in these salts is soothing to sore muscles because the salts are mildly astringent. Some people also take epsom salts for indigestion.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

Epsom salt is hydrated magnesium sulfate. It is a bitter, colorless or white crystalline substance. It is used as a laxative and as an anti-inflammatory soak. It's very relaxing.
Trina Wallace 8/27/98

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Ergocalciferol
See Vitamin D

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Essential Oils
Essential oils are highly concentrated aromatic extracts of different plants (usually a single plant). They come in a wide variety of scents, ranging from common ones such as peppermint to the more exotic patchouli and sandalwood. They are more expensive than other scents but are worth it as the scents are pure and intense, and will last for a very long time.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox
For individual oils see the Essential Oil List

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Everclear
Brand name for 190 proof grain alcohol.

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Extracts and Flavorings
Alcohol is mixed with a substance to produce an extract. It is then used to scent and flavor mixtures. Extracts come in a wide variety of flavors, from banana to peppermint. If you need a quidk and inexpensive cologne, they are easy to use.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox
Also see Carbon Dioxide Extracts

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Flowers
Flowers have been used in cosmetics for ages, oftentimes for symbolic reasons. Flowers that have wilted or turned a bit brown are still usable in cosmetic products. A flower's physical properties are also important; marigold, for example, has very strong healing powers because of its antibacterial properties.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Gelatin
Gelatin is a protein obtained from animal collagen (boiling skin, bones, tendons, ets., in water). It is beneficial to your hair and nails because of its high protein content.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Germaben II
Germaben II is a preservative manufactured by the Sutton Company (a division of ISP) in New Jersey. This material is composed of four components:
Propylene Glycol
Diazolidinyl Urea
Methylparaben
Propylparaben

It is sold as a clear solution that is typically used at 1%. It should be incorporated at 40C or lower temperature. It is broad spectrum and quite stable. It is not approved for used in Japan since it isd considered to be a formaldehyde donor. It has an excellent safety profile and is among the most widely use preservative mixtures sold in the world. It can be used to preserve emulsions as well as shampoos and hair conditioners. It is broadly compatible with most cosmetic ingredients.
Ken 6/29/98

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Glycerine
Glycerine is a clear, odorless, sticky liquid produced during soap making. It attracts moisture and keeps products from drying out. I you read cosmetics labels you will notice it listed as an ingredient in many products. A classic hand-softening formula is glycerine and rosewater.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Guava
High in alphahydoxy acids, it is used in a face peel Recipes. It accellerates exfoliation. You have to be careful with this stuff and not use it to much as you can really irritate yourself.
Ellen

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Gums
See Gum Table of Contents

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Helyichrysum
Helyichrysum (Helichrysum angustifolium) is also known as Italian Everlasting, and Imortelle.
Mary Robinson

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Hemp Oil
Hemp oil is known as "Nature's Most Perfectly Balanced Oil." It contains 81% of the hard to find polyunsaturated Essential Fatty Acids (EFA's). These oils have the ability to enter directly into the lipid layers of dry skin cells and replenish the oils missing through sun exposure, poor nutrition or other abuse. Saturated oils only form a temporary barrier on the skin that slows transpiration from the body but do nothing for the skin cells themselves. Dermatologists claim that Essential Fatty Acids replenish dry skin, preventing cell loss and causing younger looking skin.

Beware of hemp oils that have been bleached. A couple of companies are using chemical bleaching processes to get rid of rancidity in their oils. Hemp Oil naturally has a deep green cast to it. If you see yellow oil purported to be hemp oil, its a sign that it has been treated. One company goes so far as to deodorize their oil, a process that heats the oil far past the point of safety. The yellow or clear, processed oils should be avoided, especially for eating purposes. The bleaching process wipes out all Vitamin E and other anti-oxidants, so some sort of stabilizer must be added to give the bleached oil some shelf life.

We often get asked about the shelf life of the cosmetic hemp oil. It is important to know that the more reactive an oil is, the better it is for your body. The premium oils like hemp, flax and evening primrose oils are especially fragile. This is why we recommend refrigeration of our product. Vitamin E, Vitamin A or Vitamin C act as anti-oxidants and extend the life of the oil. This will buy a lot of time. People who manufacture skin care products with fragile oil like flax or hemp, have to learn how to stabilize their products. For soaps, this is not as critical, but most soapmakers do not want to use an oil that is rancid past the point that you would want to eat it. We draw the line at a Peroxide value (PV) of 20. There are many natural and synthetic anti-oxidants to chose from. We have learned to get a three year shelf life for our skin care products without artificial extenders and so have others.
We havel three grades of oil.

SpectraVac Processed Oil (best for edible use and high quality skin care products)
Cosmetic Grade Oil (fresh pressed here in Ohio, filtered but not refined at all)
Technical Grade Oil (best for paints, inks, varnishes lubricants, candle making, and other such uses)

The stated shelf life for the SpectraVac Oil is One Year under refrigeration although we are working on being able to say one year without refrigeration. The method we use in producing this oil without it ever touching oxygen is that good. Once the container is opened, its shelf life is the same as the Cosmetic Grade of oil.

The Cosmetic Grade of oil is a little harder to judge, especially when used in the context of a soapmaker. If refrigerated we say five months, unrefrigerated only several weeks. This is the length of time that the oil remains edible, commercial soaps are made with far more rancid oils. The technical grade of oil is the same oil but is the stock of oil that has been here more than two weeks so we downgrade it and sell it for less. The oil we are suggesting for soapmakers is the Cosmetic Grade oil. It is less than a week oil when it leaves here.
Don Wirtshafter

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Henna Leaves
Ground henna leaves are a well-known ancient beauty treatment for the hair and nails. The henna plant or shrub grows in North Africa and the Near East. Henna contains a resinous substance that, when mixed with water, will coat your hair, skin, and nails. It can be used to dye the hair, give it extra body and shine, and strengthen the nails. Make sure the henna you purchase is made from 100% henna leaves.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Herbs
See Herb page

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Herbal Teas
Herbal teas are an excellent source of herbs such as chamomile frowers or a mixture of herbs. Make sure they contain pure herbal ingredients. Tea Bags are also ideal for making scented waters and oils, as you do not have to strain out the solids. Herbal teas can be used in the bath, as skin fresheners and hair rinses, and in creams and lotions.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Honey
Honey is made by bees from the nectar of flowering plants and trees and contains many vital vitamins and minerals. It has a very high potassium content, which makes it almost impossible for bacteria to survive in it. Honey is one of the best-known humectants.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Hydrosols
A safe and gentle (and less expensive) alternative to the use of rare EO's are Hydrosols, a by-product of the steam distillation process that produces the Essential Oils we use.

During the distillation process that yields the Essential Oils, the steam containing the oils is chilled, thus turning into water, with a layer of EO floating on top. The EO's are skimmed off and bottled for our use. In some cases the remaining water is just discarded. However, this water contains both minute molecules of the Essential Oil, as well as all the water soluble elements of the plant that are not present in the Oil.
Marge Clark

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Jojoba Bean Oil
The jojoba plant is found in southern Arizona, southern California, and northern Mexico. On the jojoba shrub grows a pid that contains one to three seeds, 48 to 51 percent of which is oil. Jojoba bean oil has become very popular recently because it is very similar to our bodies' own natural oils.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Kukui Nut Oil
Kukui nut oil is really beginning to become a discovered oil in the cosmetic industry. It is too bad that it has taken so long, but at least it has arrived. If you begin looking on cosmetic labels, you will see more and more mention of kukui nut oil as part of the ingredients. And rightly so. It is a much needed oil in the cosmetic industry.

Kukui nut oil is cold pressed in Hawaii from the nut of the kukui nut tree, Alleurites moluccana. The native Hawaiians have used this oil for hundreds of years to protect the skin of their babies. It is still used widely throughout the Pacific Islands.

Cosmetic chemists state, "Kukui nut oil has an excellent feel to and on the skin." They also report that it readily absorbs into the skin, and does not leave the skin feeling greasy. Through the testing that has been done on kukui nut oil, it has been shown that the oil penetrates the stratum corneum, and leaves a triglyceride barrier which contains a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, if kukui nut oil is used as a base for lotions, it will be very effective in laying down an emollient layer of lipids. The researchers speculate that the skin feel of the oil is due to the fact that it lays down a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and forms a semipermeable barrier that protects the skin from continuing to dry out. This would then allow the skin to heal naturally. So if the kukui nut oil is applied to chapped or rough, dry skin, it will leave the skin smooth, silky, and soft. Research also shows that kukui nut oil seems to help prevent scarring.

The chemical profile of kukui nut oils shows that it contains a high level of linoleic and linolenic acids. Epidermal oils contain components of fatty acids, and linoleic acid make up approximately 41% of these. Oils that were isolated from comedons (blackheads) only showed to contain 6% linoleic acid derivatives. This shows, that in comedogenesis (black heads and clogged pores) there is a localized shortage of this essential material. Thus kukui nut oil would help to effectively treat those, such as teenagers, who are prone to this problem.

Another researcher has shown that these same fatty acids also play a very important role in maintaining the integrity of lipid structures in the intercellular spaces of the stratum corneum. It may even help to form healthy skin by being a component of the stratum compactum and the horny layer. Here again, kukui nut oil would be an excellent oil of choice in cosmetics and toiletries.

Other research shows that stratum corneum lipids which contain only saturated fatty acids are not effective in helping the skin do its job. The same research showed that unsaturated fatty acids were vital in helping to reduce the amount of water the skin looses. (This is how fatty acids help to control the function of the skin of being a barrier.) Because of this, kukui nut oil should also be used in products for the elderly, whose skin barrier function is compromised or damaged.

Another plus is that these same unsaturated fatty acids seem to inhibit bacterial activity. During a research project, cultures of staphaureus were placed on the skin and were quickly killed by the linoleic acid. This shows that kukui nut oil would also be very beneficial in wound healing.

In my experience, I have not found a better oil than kukui nut oil. I use it in various ways, from direct application on the delicate areas of my skin, to components of bath products, such as lotions, creams, body oils, and even soap. In my use, it does quickly absorb into the skin, does not leave the skin greasy, and seems to really benefit the overall function and appearance of my skin. And the research really seems to show that it is one of the best oils available.

STORAGE AND SHELF LIFE:
Kukui nut oil has been tainted to be an oil with a very short shelf life. I have found that with proper antioxidant additions and with proper storage techniques, I can get kukui nut oil to last an indefinite period.

I have stored this oil in the back of a kitchen cupboard for 1 year without any ill effects. However, for prolonged storage, I recommend dividing the oil up into 8 ounce increments, or smaller, and placing in the freezer. I have had great success with this technique, and infact keep any and all "unstable" oils in this fashion.
Submitted by Jennifer Akin 5/14/98
Supplies:
Emollient Action of Kukui Nut Oil, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists(Sept/Oct 1993), by H. Ako, L. Fujikawa, and D. Gray
Kukui and Macadamia Nut Oils, Cosmetic Applications, Cosmetic & Toiletries(Nov 1991) by K. Klein
All Vegetables Oils Arent Created Equal, DCI(May 1992), by D. Gray

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Lanette Wax
See Waxes

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Lanolin
Lanolin is found in the oil glands of sheep and is more like a wax than an oil or fat. It absorbs and holds water to the skin. There is no known scientific proof that lanolin pevetrates skin better than oil, though many believe this to be so.
Natural Beauty at Home by Janice Cox

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Lavender Oil
Lavandula angustifolia which includes many of the garden lavenders we grow such as Hidcote, Alba, Rosea, and Twickel purple. These lavenders produce a sweet, floral smelling oil.

Another lavender oil is derived from a hybrid of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia, and is known as Lavandula x intermedia. This group includes such cultivars as Grosso and Grappenhall. These lavenders produce a sharper scented, more camphorous oil which is sometimes called lavandin. L. latifolia is the lavender grown mainly by the Spanish perfume industry and produces 'spike' oil, which is the noticeably camphorous 'lavender' often used in furniture polishes etc..

There are a number of other species lavenders such as L. stoechas (sometimes known as French lavender), all with their own individual scents.
Pat Silver

For more about Lavender see Lavender

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Lecithin
Found in egg yolks, that is why they make such lovely mayo. Stay with the lecithin. it is the best thing I have found so far to make a reliable (read that as it doesn't separate very often!) mixture. I also have been known to run the blender 15 or 20 minutes, or until Mr Wizard (hubby dearest) starts screaming from the noise!
Bea Hall

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Lye - Sodium Hydroxide or Potassium Hydroxide
Also see Safety

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